The start of the Reformation dates back to Germany when a monk, Martin Luther, published his "95 Theses" inaccording to History. The Reformation ended between and when the Peace of Westphalia treaties allowed Catholicism and Lutheranism to coexist in Germany. Reformation began to spread through Europe before and during this time.
While doctrinal standards and confessional statements exist, these are not usually interpreted in ways to exclude people from membership.
The protestant reformation of 16th century had both: immediate and long term effects. Thus, we can see that it was a revolution of understanding the essence of religion, and of what God is. The protestant reformation is said to a religious movement. One of the most hyped “events” of American television, The Vietnam War, has started on the PBS feelthefish.com directors are Ken Burns and Lynn Novick. Acclaimed for his documentaries on the Civil War, the Great Depression and the history of jazz, Burns says of his Vietnam films, “They will inspire our country to begin to talk and think about the Vietnam war in an entirely new way”. - The protestant reformation of 16th century had both: immediate and long term effects. Thus, we can see that it was a revolution of understanding the essence of religion, and of what God is. The protestant reformation is said to a religious movement.
In practice, mainline churches tend to be theologically moderate and influenced by higher criticisman approach used by scholars to separate the Bible's earliest historical elements from perceived later additions and intentional distortions.
Mainline denominations generally teach that the Bible is God's Word in function, but that it must be interpreted both through the lens of the cultures in which it was originally written, and examined using God-given reason.
A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found that only 22 percent of the 7, mainline Christians surveyed said the Bible is God's Word and is to be interpreted as literally true, word for word.
Thirty-eight percent thought that the Bible is God's Word but is not to be taken literally, word for word. Twenty-eight percent said the Bible was not the Word of God but was of human origin. This gap has caused feelings of alienation among conservative mainline Protestants.
Social justice[ edit ] The mainline denominations emphasize the biblical concept of justice, stressing the need for Christians to work for social justicewhich usually involve politically liberal approaches to social and economic problems.
Early in the 20th century, they actively supported the Social Gospel.
Mainline churches were basically pacifistic beforebut under the influence of people such as Reinhold Niebuhr they supported World War II and the Cold War.
Having a college degree is common among mainline Protestants, especially Episcopalians and Presbyterians. Almost all mainline denominations are gender-inclusive and ordain women. While the national church has not approved of gay or lesbian clergy, the UMC has allowed transgender pastors.
While no particular candidate can be endorsed, mainline churches often invite political speakers.
At the General Conference for the African Methodist Episcopal Churcha historically Black denomination but also identified as mainline, Hillary Clinton was invited to offer an address for the delegates and clergy. Protestant churches as a whole have slowly declined in total membership since the s.
This statistic may be inaccurate due to the number of former or historically mainline Protestants who continue to espouse mainline Protestant values without active church attendance. Much analysis has taken place both from those within and outside mainline denominations.
Key factors indicate that all types of churches can and do grow, regardless of hymnody or contemporary music, type of liturgy, average age of worshiper, or location  On average, however, churches in rural areas, churches with older congregants, and churches with fewer young people involved struggle most to add members and grow churches.
Says David Roozen, Director of Hartford Seminary's Hartford Institute for Religion Research, "Location, Location, Location used to be the kind way that researchers described the extent to which the growth or decline of American congregations was captive to the demographic changes going on in their immediate neighborhoods.
Mainline churches have also had difficulty attracting minorities, particularly Hispanics. Hispanics comprise 6 percent of the mainline population but 16 percent of the US population.
According to the Barna Group report, the failure of mainline Protestants to add substantial numbers of Hispanics is portent for the future, given both the rapid increase of the Hispanic population as well as the outflow of Hispanics from Catholicism to Protestant churches in the past decade, most of whom are selecting evangelical or Pentecostal Protestant churches.
Many older Protestant churches lived a vibrant lifetime and continue to evidence vital ministry and faith regardless of declining populations or birthrates. For example, giving and engagement with need and justice, both indicators of strong Christian faith, have increased despite the aging and loss of congregational members.
Demographic trends for evangelical and historically African-American churches have been more stable. According to the Pew Research Center, mainline churches could claim The second most important factor is that fewer conservatives switch to mainline denominations than before.
Despite speculation to the contrary, Hout, Greeley, and Wilde argue that switching from a mainline to a conservative denomination is not important in accounting for the trend, because it is fairly constant over the decades.
Finally, conservative denominations have had a greater inflow of converts. Mainline denomination members have the lowest birthrate among American Christian groups.
Unless there is a surge of new members, rising death rates are predicted to diminish their ranks even further in the years ahead.The immediate impact of the French Revolution was the death of thousands of aristocrats on the guillotine, the desecration of many Catholic cathedrals and churches and the abolishment of religion.
Terminology. The term mainline Protestant was coined during debates between modernists and fundamentalists in the s. Several sources claim that the term is derived from the Philadelphia Main Line, a group of affluent suburbs of Philadelphia; most residents belonged to mainline denominations.
Today, most mainline Protestants remain rooted in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States. Israel Shahak was a resident of the Warsaw Ghetto and a survivor of Bergen-Belsen. He arrived in Palestine in and lived there until his death in He was an outspoken critic of the state of Israel and a human rights activist.
Sources. History: A. GeneralMon. historica Soc. Jesu, ed. Rodeles (Madrid, , in progress); Orlandini (continued in turn by Sacchini, Jouvancy, and Cordara. An overview of the History of Christianity including the life of Jesus, his apostles, Christianity's spread through the western world and its influences upon the world.
This is a guest post by Jason Stellman. Jason was born and raised in Orange County, CA, and served as a missionary with Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa in Uganda (’’92) and in Hungary (’’00).