A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter.
References Description Organotins with four organic groups, e. Organotins with three organic groups can be powerful fungicides and bactericides, depending on the organic group R. TBTO, Incidin are industrial biocides used in antifouling paints and in wood treatment and preservation.
They find use as disinfectants and agents for destroying molluscs such as snails molluscicides. Other uses include antifungal action in textiles and industrial water systems such as cooling tower and refrigeration water systems, wood pulp and paper mill systems, and breweries.
They can also be used for the control of schistosomiasis a chronic tropical disease.
Fentin, Tinmate, Brestanol are used as agricultural fungicides and in antifouling paints. Organotins with two organic groups, e. Organotins with one organic group, e. Common uses for selected organotin compounds follow.
Tributyltin oxide is used as a fungicide and pesticide in timber treatments. It has been used in antifouling paints but this application is now banned by international protocol. Triphenyltin acetate is used as an insect control agent and a fungicide.
Triphenyltin chloride is used as a biocide and an intermediate. Triphenyltin hydroxide is used as a chemical to sterilise insects and as a fungicide.
Fenbutatin oxide is used for the control of a wide range of mites which feed on plants. Azocyclotin is a long-acting acaricide for the control of spider mites on fruits including citrusvines, hops, cotton, vegetables and ornamentals. Substance details Substance name: Organo-tin compounds CASR number: Not applicable Molecular formula: A large number of organotin compounds exist.
Important organotin compounds can belong to any of four classes. These classes are related to the number of organic groups, namely tetraorganotins, triorganotins, diorganotins and monoorganotins. Physical properties Organotin compounds vary in their physical properties.
Properties of selected organotins follow. Tributyltin oxide is a thin colourless to yellow liquid with a weak odour. Its specific gravity is 1. Triphenyltin acetate is an off-white crystalline solid.
Fenbutatin oxide is a white crystalline solid which is extremely stable to heat, light and atmospheric oxygen. Chemical properties Organotin compounds vary in their chemical and biological properties. Most commercial organotins have a very low water solubility. Some general properties for different classes of organotins follow.
Tetraorganotins are very stable. They are ineffective as biocides substances that are capable of killing living organisms and are relatively non-toxic.
However, they can be slowly decomposed or metabolised to more toxic triorganotin compounds. Triorganotin compounds are generally more toxic than organotins in other classes. Trialkyltins with linear organic groups cannot be used as agricultural biocides due to their high toxicity to plants phytotoxicity.
Diorganotins show no antifungal activity. Their antibacterial and toxic activity is low, except for the diphenyl derivatives. Monoorganotins show no biocidal activity and have very low toxicity to mammals. Major environmental implications are related to triorganotins used as agricultural and industrial biocides and to a lesser extent to the application of some diorganotin and monoorganotin compounds in rigid PVC.Description.
Brief contact with dialkyltin and trialkyltin compounds causes irritation of the skin and the respiratory tract. Acute intoxications can cause vomiting, headache, visual defects and abnormal electrical activity of the brain. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
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