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Unfortunately among the estimated 1, million cubic km of water, it is only 0. Such meager amount of fresh water coupled with the exponential population growth exacerbates the challenges of water supply of the world.
Subsequently this world today obliged to handle 1. In sub-Saharan Africa, particularly of the horn of Africa countries are the regions that are geographically vulnerable to climate change which have greater impact on the water situation of the region.
Such events found to highly exacerbate water availability in quantity and quality in the region Ndaruzaniye, In addition evidences portray the presence of Thesis on rural water supply regional variation in rainfall and water availability between years which has been the hindrance for the development progress of African countries WWC, Consequently the goals towards meeting the demands of water to the historically unprecedented interest of human beings in the region became the prime challenge to the poor countries.
In Ethiopia, the poor planning and implementation of water projects are indicated as the main technical constraints for the sustainable water provision to the rural households and thereby affecting the prospects of rural household water demand Israel and Awdenegest, On the other hand the variation of water availability across seasons created unreliable water supply for rural households particularly of the dry season.
Moreover poorly trained water committee which mostly led by male leader and being lackadaisical to involve the community during site selection and design found to lead to the immediate breakdown of the water supply projects.
Whatever reasons that we can enumerate the study of Tewodaj, et al concluded that access to drinking water to be as the number one problem to the rural people in Ethiopia. In recognition to this recently greater attention has been given to the broader livelihood benefits of rural water supply beyond the usual links between improved water and health Moriarty and Butterworth, Thesis on rural water supply a result adequate provision of water for meeting the basic needs of the poor are seen as precondition but insufficient if rural livelihood needed to be improved.
Water further than its consumptive position it plays a significant role for the success of small-scale household economic activities Odunuga, Due to these facts, currently rural poverty reduction lay at the center of adequate water provision to the rural poor Ogwuche, In Ethiopia though it has not gain greater attention by the government, the donor organizations have shown obsession to the productive role of water in any rural water supply projects Butterworth, et al, Because recently though there is no as such sufficient data like the urban productive users, the study of Alemayehu indicated that in rural areas the prospects of using domestic water for home based income generating activities has shown an increasing trend.
In general the background of this study showed that though rural water supply in the country remained intact, water to the rural poor has became the others source of home based economic activity to supplement the meager agricultural income.
Therefore, having understood the role of water for home based productive uses and the persistence of rural water supply challenges, the study aimed at assessing the major challenges of rural water supply and the factors of home based productive use of water at household level.
The water supply in Ethiopia, where large portion of the population are rural dwellers challenged due to poor institutional, infrastructural and socio-demographic factors.
Moreover, poor accountability and lacks of community participation in water projects were identified as constraints of sustainability Yacob, et al, Similarly the study of Aschalew revealed the absence of community participation and technical constraints are responsible for frequent water interruption and 3 sustainability challenges of rural water supply projects.
On the other side, preoccupied with the traditional approach the specific economic role of water to the rural household was ignored and thereby the contribution of water to the rural household economy has been underestimated.
Subsequently almost universally, rural water supply programmes emphasized on the need to provide 20 liters per person per day of clean water with a mere consideration of basic needs use RWSN, In Ethiopia, after the intervention of the Multiple Use Service approach by the non-government projects, the productive role of water to the rural people has got great momentum by the Ministry of Water Butterworth, et al But except a mere recognition of the productive role of water, the nature and the factors of productive water use at household level has no yet studied.
Even attempts are shown to give much emphasis to link water and irrigation while the domestic home based productive use of water by the rural households are overlooked James, Moreover most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia concerning water supply and sanitation have been found to focus on either the supply or demand part of water research which overlooked the equilibrium between rural water supply and multiple needs of water Kebede, ; Zelalem, ; and Gossaye, Similarly studies that are aimed at identifying the factors that affect the demand of water by the households found to pay little or no attention to include the productive demand of water, as a result aggregate demand are used to investigate the determinants of water consumption level.
For instance the study of Bihon,Sileshi, and Dessalegn, assessed the main factors for water consumption level, demand for improved water and aggregate water demand respectively without consideration of the productive use of water by the households.
Though the rural water supply challenges remained intact in various parts of the country, adequate water supply to the rural people remained one of the most crucial resources for survival, health and prosperity WHO, Particularly to the rural poor water plays a significant contribution as a direct input into agricultural production and as the basis for health and welfare Narcisse, Furthermore, it served as a prime input for rural households home based small-scale income generating activities, which can help them supplement the subsistence agricultural income Mendiguren and Mabelane, For instance due to the proximity to the Sudan border markets and the proliferation of economic activities in Metema woreda, the productive use of water at 4 household level as a means of income generation is the common practice of rural livelihood in the area.The water supply was inadequate as only about 15% of beneficiaries could get 20 liters of water per day per capita.
The water sources were exposed in many cases to human waste, wild life, livestock and uncontrolled flooding. Rural Water Supply and the Determinants of Productive Use of Water at the Household Level. Challenges in Metema Woreda - Kibrom Adino - Thesis (M.A.) - Politics - International Politics - Topic: Development Politics - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or feelthefish.com: The water supply was inadequate as only about 15% of beneficiaries could get 20 liters of water per day per capita.
The water sources were exposed in many cases to human waste, wild life, livestock and uncontrolled flooding. standing of Drinking Water Governance the thesis analyzes the international, national and local institutional structures, conditions as well as stakeholders PAEPAR Water Supply and Sanitation Program in Rural Areas Fr = Programme d’Approvisionnement en Eau Potable et Assainisse-.
ASSESSMENT OF CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL WATER SUPPLY: QUARIT WOREDA, AMHARA REGION A Project Paper .
ISSUES REGARDING SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY IN ZAMBIA BY KENNEDY MUSONDA submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of.